Zong Jin Jian>>
Revised version of Zhongjing Quanshu << Shanghan Lun >>,
explanations and re-written corrections
Book << Shanghan Lun >> is written by Master Zhang Ji.
This is a great book to explain and apply the principle in the
TCM bible Book << Huang Di Nei Jing >>. However in
this book, though never indicating the citation from the bible,
no sentence is meaningless and no therapeutic principle is away
from the bible. Since from the very old time, the medical books
introduce mostly the therapeutic principles but no practical
formula. The book << Shanghan Lun >> is the first
one that introduce the practical herbal formula. It is this book
that start to shine the great light on the daily clinic work of
the Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, it is written
thousands of years ago (it was written in AD year 220) and there are several versions of this
book with some differences here and there.
The mistakes happened during the copy, print and re-written by
various scholars and doctors during this long time history. The
book here, the <<Yi Zong Jin Jian>> is to collect
the explanations from various famous doctors, to correct the
possible mistakes in the << Shanghan Lun >>, and
to explain the exact possible meanings in this <<
Shanghan Lun >>, with the hope to help later TCM
practitioners in their clinic.
Zong Jin Jian>>
Taiyang stage, its condition, pulse and treatment (1)
There are six major meridians, phases, or levels in the body, e.g. Taiyang, Yangming, Shaoyang, Taiyin, Shaoyin and Jueyin. The
Taiyang level is the surface level that governs all other
meridians or levels. It is the surface defense system of the
body agaist the invasion of a disease causing things that we
call them Xieqi. When a disease comes from outside of the body,
it attacks the body surface, the Taiyang first. If the body
surface defense system is strong, e.g. the Weiqi
and the Rongqi is
strong and in harmony each other, how can a disease comes in!
This is what the book << Huang Di Nei Jing >> said: if the body
surface is strong, even a strong Wind Xieqi can not come in. If
the body surface Qi is weak, e.g. the Weiqi and Rongqi are weak
to defense, the Xieqi will come in to cause health trouble. Book
<< Huang Di Nei Jing >> said, a disease is caused due
to the weak in the body defense system first. Weiqi belongs to
Yangqi in the body. Rongqi belongs to the Yinqi in the body.
Wind is a Yang Xieqi, while a Cold is a Yin Xieqi. Each Xieqi
has different ways to affect the body structure and function.
The Wind will attack the Weiqi, while the Cold affects the
Rongqi. When the Weiqi is attacked, the body will have sweat, so
the Wind is also called a weak Xieqi, in which herb Guizhi Tang
is used. When the Rongqi is affected by the Cold Xieqi, the body
has no sweat. So the Cold Xieqi is also called a Cold Xie (Qi),
in which herb Mahuang Tang is used. If the Weiqi and the Rongqi
both are affected, the body has no sweat, herb Da Qinglong Tang
is used. If doctor understand this, has correct evaluation and
analysis for the nature and position of the disease, the
corresponding herbal therapy should solve the disease right
away. If he fails to do so, clinic condition could turn to worse
and the disease will develop into much more complex conditions
to treat. Since the Wind is the most important Xieqi to cause a
disease, so we list the Wind-invasion in the first chapter; the
Cold-invasion in the second chapter and the co-invasion by the
Wind and Cold is listed in the later third chapter.
Whenever patient has floating pulse, tight
and pain on neck, and chilly, his
disease is in Taiyang stage.
the Taiyang stage, if the person feels fever, sweat, dislike
wind, pulse feels slow, he is further diagnosed as in
Wind-invasion type Shanghan disease.
For Wind-invasion and in the Taiyang stage,
person’s floating pulse (the pulse felt with light touch
on the pulse, the Yang pulse) feels as floating, whereas the Yin
pulse (e.g. the pulse felt when press harder to bottom against
the bone) is weak. Because the deeper Yin pulse is weak, one has
sweat, has chilly, dislike-wind feeling, gentle hot feeling,
nausea (no vomiting) and stiff nose. In this case, herbal
formula of Guizhi Tang should be
Guizhi 45 grams, Shaoyao 45 grams, Gancao
30 grams, Fresh ginger 45 gram and Chinese date 12 badges.
Cut and chop all of the ingredients into
small pieces. Add the herbs and about 1800 ml water to a herbal
pot. Bring to boil and keep in mild boiling until the total
water volume in the pot (Clay pot, but not metal pot, should be
used) reduces down to about 750 ml. Remove the residue and
collect the liquid part (the herbal tea). Wait a movement until
it turns little bit cold down. Drink about one third of the
collected herbal tea. After
about 40 to 50 minutes, drink a
bowl of rice soup (about 250 ml) to help the herb to work. Cover
the body and lie down, hoping that the body is with little
sweat, but not too much sweat. If the body has too much sweat,
the disease wouldn’t be cured.
If the patient feels better, stop to drink
the remaining herb tea; if there is no sweat, continue the
drinking of the second part of the tea and keep the patient the
same way (as drink the rice soup). If there is still no sweat,
drink the remaining one third of the tea. Whole of the tea can
be finished within about 4 to 5 hours; For those with severe
illness condition, continue drinking the tea as such with close
monitoring the reaction. If after finish the first dose (e.g.
the whole herbs collected, about 750 ml), if the disease remains
no change, continue to drink the second doses of the herbal tea.
If there is still no sweat, try up to three doses. When drinking
the Guizhi Tang, it is forbid the cold food, spicy food, meat,
sticky food (fried food), wine, fertilized food, or other food
with terrible smell.
When in Taiyang Stage, if the person has fever and sweat, it
means that his Rongqi is weak but Weiqi
is strong, that stimulates the sweat. To remove the
disease-causing thing (the Xieqi), Guizhi Tang is needed.
the person has no any disease inside the body, but feels hot
and sweat from time to time, it means his Weiqi is in
disturbed condition. To produce a healing sweat before its own
sweat onset can stop it (to cure). Guizhi Tang is needed for
the health problem is simply a easy sweat, it suggests that
Rongqi is in harmony. When the Rongqi is in harmony, the Weiqi
is not in a harmony, since the Rongqi is traveling inside of the
blood while the Weiqi is outside of the blood vesicle.
Use a healing sweat therapy, both Qi will come to harmony
together. Guizhi Tang is needed.
In the Taiyang stage, after the first
drinking of the Guizhi Tang, there is no any improvement of the
condition and the person feels annoyed, acupuncture should be
used: stimulate the Fengchi and Fengfu points (on the back of
the neck). Then use the Guizhi Tang again.
(When in the Taiyang stage) and if the disease is to cure by
itself, one will feel annoyed (irritable in emotion) first, then
has sweat. Why this way? It is because the pulse is floating,
indicating that a sweat will follow to remove the Xieqi out of
When a disease is in the Taiyang stage for up to six or seven
days, the floating pulse can be find in the wrists and font of
ankles, even if the person feels tight in mouth that prevent
opening of the mouth to speak, and even if he feel irritable in
body, the disease will cure by itself.
the pulse is harmony (not floating or others), the person feels
strongly annoyed/impatient, his upper eye lids
falls to close, and his inner corner of the eye turns yellow in
color, the disease is to cure by
Asked: how to know a disease is to recovery, by feeling pulse?
it will cure by itself if the pulses in the Chun, Guan and Chi
positions in the wrist
are pretty much the same, e.g. no matter they all felt floating
or deeper; small or big; fasting or slower, even if the person
has continuous fever or cold.
If a disease shows up with fever and
chilly, it occurs from Yang; if it is
without fever, but still chilly, it occurs from Yin. Disease
occurring from Yang will get recover within seven days. Disease
occurring from Yin will recover within six days. This is because
the number seven associated to Yang and number six is associated
Asked: how to know when a disease is gained and when it will
recover? Master: if a disease is gained in the middle of the
night, it will recover at noon next day. If it is gained at the
noon, it will recover at the middle of the night the same day.
That gained at the noon and recover at the middle of night is
for the fact that the Yang (at the noon) will get recovered at
Yin time (middle night); That gained at the middle of night but
recovered at the noon is for the reason that the Yin disease
(middle of night) needs more Yang (at the noon) to recover.
When in the Taiyang stage, if one’s
headache disappears by itself (without treatment) after seven
days, it means the disease reaction has finished the circle in
all stages. If the
headache comes back again after the seven days, we should use
acupuncture on the Yangming meridian to stop its second circle.
For Wind person, if he
recovered from the Taiyang stage (e.g. no more fever, no more
tight and pain on the neck, the pulse is not so floating), but
still feels tired and feels no normal energy as usual, he needs
12 days to recover naturally.
The function of the Guizhi Tang is to lose
therefore, if the pulse feels floating and tight, and there is
fever but no sweat, it should not be used. This is
common sense and principle in the use of Guizhi Tang. Keep this
Guizhi Tang should not be used to Wine
Otherwise the person will vomit, since the body constitution of
the Wine person cannot tolerate sweet taste.
For those who vomit after drinking the
Guizhi Tang, they will vomit pus and blood later.
In the Taiyang stage, if sweating therapy causes
continuous sweat, and if the person feels dislike wind, has
difficulty in urination, arms and legs feels tight and hard to
bends or stretch, Guizhi jia Fuzi Tang should be used.
herb Fuli 30 gram in the Guizhi Tang. Cook and Drink the tea as
for Guizhi Tang.
After drinking of Guizhi Tang, if person
has strong sweat, feels very annoyed, very thirsty and drinking
water does not help to calm down the thirsty, pulse is big,
Baihu jia Renshen Tang should be used.
When the disease is in Taiyang stage for three days and if the
person has had sweat therapy, but still feels continuous fever,
it means that the disease has past into Yangming stage. Tiaowei
Chengqi Tang should be the main formula.
When in Taiyang stage and after sweat therapy, if the person has
hand heavy sweat which makes him dry in stomach, feels annoyed
(irritable in emotion and in body), simply give him little water
to drink to easy the stomach. If his pulse is floating, his
urine is difficult, and if he feels slight hot and very thirsty,
herb formula Wuling San should
be used mainly.
With Wind-invasion, if the disease continued in Taiyang stage
for six to seven days without recovery, and if the person feels
hot, very thirsty, but has vomiting after drinking, it means he
has water reversing syndrome. Wuling San is the main formula.
Zhuling 12 gram, Fuling 12 gram, Zexie 20 gram, Baishu 12 gram,
Guizhi 8 gram.
Grind all herbs into powder, drink 1 gram
each time, three times a day. Drink more warm water after the
herb drinking. It will be cured after a sweat.
When in Taiyang stage, if one has more urine, it is due to too
much water drinking.
The person will also feel palpitation. If he has little urine,
he must feel urgent feeling during the urination.
After sweat due to a sweat therapy, drinking more water will
cause asthma-like short breath, so will with shower.
After sweat after sweat therapy, Guizhi Tang should not be
repeated. In this case, if one has sweat, asthma but no fever,
Mahuang Xingren Gancao Tang
can be used.
Mahuang Xinggren Gancao Tang
Mahuang 60 gram, Xingren 50 badges, Gancao (processed) 30 gram,
Shigao 30 gram.
Mahuang and 1750 ml water in herbal pot. Bring to boil until the
total liquid in the pot is about 1250 ml. Remove the floating
residue. Add other herbs in. Continue to cook until the total
liquid part is about 750 ml. Collect the liquid part (herbal
tea). Drink one third of the herbal tea. Repeat three times a
day. This is one-day dose.
After bowel-cleansing therapy, Guizhi Tang should not be used
again. Otherwise, the person may have sweat and asthma, though
no strong hot. If this happens, Mahuang Xingren Shigao Gancao
Tang can be used.
When Wind-invasion in the Taiyang stage, the person also has
constipation (or hard to have bowel movement), nausea
and vomiting, a bowel-cleansing therapy can be used only under
the condition that the original Taiyang conditions have been
cleared. If the person has mild sweat and fever that comes from
time to time, headache, full in upper stomach area, pain in the
side of the chest and stomach, nausea but no vomiting, short of
breath, sweat but no cold feeling followed, it means that the
disease is no longer in the surface Taiyang stage, but in inside
stagees (Shaoyang and Yangming stages). In this case, Shi Zao
Tang is the main herbal formula.
Yuanhua, Gansui, Daji, the same amount; Chinese date ten badges.
Grind the Yuanhua, Gansui, Daji into powder. Add the Chinese
date and about 375 ml water into herbal pot. Bring to boil for
30 min or until the liquid in the pot is about 200 ml. Collect
the liquid part, mix it with the herbal powders. For strong
body, drink 2 gram, and for weak person, drink 1 gram. If there
is only little urine and the disease remains there, repeat the
drink next day and increase the dose by 0.5 gram. After having
had large urine, stop to take it. Eat rice soup for further
When in Taiyang stage, bowel-cleansing therapy should not be
used if the disease is still in the surface Taiyang stage. To
clear the surface disease, Guizhi Tang should be used.
When in Taiyang stage, sweat therapy caused sweat but the
disease remains. If again a bowel-cleansing therapy is followed
and if the pulse is still floating, the disease will not be
cured. Floating pulse suggests the disease is still on the
surface layer, proper treatment is sweating therapy to remove
the disease from the out layer of the body. Guizhi Tang should
When in Taiyang stage but a bowel-cleansing therapy is used, the
pulse is still floating and no Jiexiong in
stomach area, such pure floating pulse suggests that the disease
will leave the body from the out layer of the body. If the pulse
is urgent, there will be Jiexiong; if it
is tight, there will be pain in the throat;
if it is as string, there will be spasm in the side chest;
if the pulse is thin and fast, there will be continuous headache;
if it is deep and tight, there will be vomiting;
and if the pulse feels deep and smooth, there will have
and if the pulse is floating and smooth, there will have
bleeding in the stool.
When in Taiyang stage for two to three days, the person has no
willing to lie down but to stay up. Such person must have weak
pulse and feel bloating in stomach area. This is because he has
had cold in the stomach area but a bowel-cleansing therapy has
been wrongly used. The cleansing therapy stops his diarrhea, but
causes fullness in the stomach. If on the fourth day he has
diarrhea again, it will be hot-diarrhea.
Taiyang stage, the invaded disease remains but a bowel-cleansing
therapy has been used repeatedly for several times, the diarrhea
will be hot-diarrhea; if the diarrhea continuous, the person
will feel fullness in stomach. If it is still in Taiyang stage,
Guizhi jia Renshen Tang should be used mainly.
Guizhi jia Renshen Tang
Guizhi 60 gram, Gancao (proceeded) 60 gram, Baishu (45 gram),
Renshen 45 gram, Ganjiang 45 gram.
the Gancao, Baishu, Renshen and Ganjiang and 2250 ml water into
herbal pot. Bring to boil until the liquid volume down to about
1250 ml. Add the Guizhi in and continue to cook until the total
liquid volume in the pot is about 750 ml. Collect the liquid
(herbal tea). Drink one third of the tea. Drink another one
third during the day and the last one third at night.
When in Taiyang stage and it is Guizhi Tang condition but a
bowel-cleansing therapy is mis-used, that causes continuous
diarrhea, the person feels asthma and sweat, Gegen Huangqin
Huanglian Tang should be used.
Gegen Huanglian Huangqin Tang
Gegen 95 gram, Gancao (processed) 30 gram,
Huanglian 45 gram, Huangqin 30 gram.
Add Gegen and 2000 ml water in herbal pot.
Bring to boil until the liquid volume is about 1500 ml. Add the
remaining herbs in and continue to cook until the total liquid
volume is about 500 ml. Collect the water part from the mixture.
Separate the mixture into several parts. Drink each part in one
to two hour interval (until the asthma and diarrhea stop).
In the Taiyang stage, if one feels full in
chest, pulse is fast, after bowel-cleansing therapy, use Guizhi
qui Shaoyao Tang. If the one feels sweat and slight chilly, add
Fuzi in this formula.[59
Guizhi qui Shaoyao Tang
Remove Shaoyao from the standard Guizhi Tang. Cook and drink the
herbal tea as for Guizhi Tang.
Guizhi qui Shaojiao jia Fuzi Tang
Remove Shaoyao from the Guizhi Tang but add Fuzi 30 gram in.
When in Taiyang stage but has had
bowel-cleansing therapy, the person has slight asthma and there
is still indications to the Taiyang stage, Guizhi jia Houpo Tang
is used mostly. Asthma
asthma onset, Guizhi Tang can be used with addition of herb
Houpo and Xingren. This is Guizhi jia Houpo Xingren Tang.
Guizhi jia Houpo Xingren Tang
herb Houpo and Xingren in the standard Guizhi Tang. Cook and
drink it as for Guizhi Tang.
When in Taiyang stage and have had bowel-cleansing therapy, one
may have reverse pushing feeling.
In this case, Guizhi Tang can still be used (the same way as
standard procedure for the formula). If there is no such reverse
pushing feeling, it should not be used.
Clinic condition indicating the use of Guizhi Tang, if the
person has no headache, no stiffness in the neck, but the pulse
feels slight floating in the Chun position and feels full in the
chest, feels reverse pushing and hard to breath, it means that
the person has cold in the chest. Vomiting therapy should be
used. Formula: Guadi San.
Guadi (process into yellow in color) 7.5 gram, Chixiaodou 7.5
Grind the two herbs into powder. Mix it well. Add 1 gram of this
mixture, herb Xiangzhi 20 gram, water 175 ml into herbal pot.
Bring to boil to cook as a soup. Collect the liquid part. Drink
all the herb tea once to stimulate vomit. If no vomit, drink
little bit more amount next time. Stop to take this herb if
there is big vomit. If a person has easy bleeding and very weak,
this herb should not be used.
disease comes from outside but a wrong bowel-cleansing therapy
is used. This makes the invading disease brings hot into the
chest to cause Jiexiong syndrome.
If the disease develops from inside organs, a wrong
bowel-cleansing therapy will cause Fullness syndrome in stomach,
because the bowel-cleansing therapy is used too early.
When in Taiyang stage, if pulse feels floating, agitating and
fast, the floating pulse means Wind; fast means fever/hot;
agitating means pain, fast also means weakness. Headache, fever,
slight night sweat and feeling dislike-cold all suggests that
the disease is still in the Taiyang stage. At this time, a
bowel-cleansing therapy will makes the agitating and fast pulse
into slower, pain in the chest, empty in the stomach. The
invading disease therefore stimulates the chest and diagram,
causes short of breath, irritable in emotion and in physical
body, annoyed, hardness in the stomach area when touch, all are
called the Jiexiong syndrome. Da Xianxiong Tang should be used.
If there is no such typical Jiexiong syndrome, but only sweat on
head (not on other part of the body), difficulty in urine, the
person’s skin will turn to yellow (jaundice).
Dahuang (remove skin) 60 gram, Mangxiao 130 gram, Gansui (grind
into powder) 1.3 gram.
Dahuang and 1500 ml water into herbal pot. Bring to boil until
the liquid in the pot is about 1000 ml. Remove the residue, add
the Mangxiao in and continue to cook for 5 to 10 min. Then add
Gansui in. Drink half of the herbal tea. Stop to drink the tea
if there is big bowel movement.
a disease in Taiyang stage, the person was given repeated sweat
therapy and followed bowel-cleansing therapy. This caused him no
bowel movement for several days. He feels dry in mouth and feels
thirsty, and slight fever in the later afternoon. He also feels
hardness, fullness and pain (he dislike to touch his stomach),
from upper stomach to lower stomach. This condition indicates
the use of Da Xianxiong Tang (the Da Xianxiong Tang condition).
small Jiexiong condition, the problem is in the upper stomach
area. It feels pain when touch. The person’s pulse feels
floating the smooth. This condition indicates the use of Xiao
Xiao Xianxiong Tang
Huanglian 15 gram, Banxia 124 gram, Gualushi 45 gram.
the Gualushi and 1500 ml of water into herbal pot. Bring to boil
until the inside liquid has about half left. Remove herb reside,
add the remaining two herbs in and continue to cook until there
is about 500 ml left. Collect the herbal tea. Drink one third of
the tea each time, totally three times a day.
With the Cold-invasion Shanghan disease for about six to seven
days, the person has Jiexiong condition: feels hot, fullness and
pain in the upper stomach area and the upper stomach feels hard
as stone when touch, with deep and tight pulse. Da Xianxiong is
the main herb formula to use.
one has Cold-Fullness Jiexiong and has no fever, San Wu Bai San
should be used.
Wu Bai San
Jiegen 12 gram, Badou (remove skin, process to dark in color,
grind to mud) 4 gram, Beimu 12 gram.
Grind the Jiegen and Beimu into powder first. Add the Badou in
and continue to grind. Drink the herbal powder, 0.5 gram each
time for strong body constitution (for thin person, reduce the
amount). If the disease is located over the diagram, the person
will vomit; if it is under the diagram, the person will have
diarrhea. If he has no diarrhea after taking of the herb powder,
eat one cup of warm rice soup; if the diarrhea continues, drink
cold rice soup to stop it.
the Cold-invasion Shanghan disease has existed for more than ten
days, the hot Jiexiong remains with repeated fever and chilly,
Da Chaihu Tang should be used. If there is the Jiexiong
syndrome, but no strong fever, it means a situation of
water-condensed in the upper stomach area. In this case, if
there is slight sweat in only the head, Da Xianxiong Tang is the
main herbal formula.
With Jiexiong syndrome, the person also fees hard and tight on
the neck, similar to mild Jing syndrome.
Bowel-cleansing therapy will solve this problem. Da Xianxiong
should be used.
Dahuang 90 gram, Tinglizi (Cook processed) 60 gram, Manxiao 60
gram, Xingren (remove skin, tips, cook process to black in
color) 60 gram.
Grind the Dahuang and Tinglizi into powder. Mix it with Mangxiao
and Xingren, continue grand into powder, make it into pills,
about 1 cm in diameter each. Add one pill, herb Gansui powder 1
gram, white honey 40 gram and water 500 ml in a herbal pot.
Bring to boil until the liquid volume in the pot is about 250
ml. Drink all the herbal tea once. The person should have big
bowel movement overnight. If not, repeat one or more times, once
a day, until there is big bowel movement.
Jiexiong syndrome, if the person’s pulse feels floating and big,
the bowel-cleansing therapy should not be used, otherwise he may
the Jiexiong syndrome, if the person is annoyed (irritable
emotionally and physically), he will die.
Asked: There are Jiexong and Zangjie. How to distinguish them?
Answer: For Jiexiong, the person feels pain when press his upper
stomach and his pulse is floating on the Chun position but deep
in the Guan position. For the Zangjie syndrome, the person also
feel fullness and hard in the upper stomach, but his appetite is
normal as usual, he has diarrhea from time to time, and his
pulse feels floating on the Chun position but deep, small, thin,
on the Guan position. If the person’s tongue covering is white,
thick, slippery like, his (Jiexiong) is hard to treat.
a person has a history of Fullness syndrome (e.g. bloating and
fullness feeling in the upper stomach of side stomach area), and
the fullness expands to the navel, the pain expands to the lower
stomach, to the pennies or vagina, it is called Zangjie. The one
Zangjie is Yin condition, not a Yang condition. There is no
cold-hot repeat, and the person is calm and his tongue covering
is white, thick and slippery, the bowel-cleaning therapy should
not be used.
When a disease is in Taiyang stage, it should be resolved with a
sweat therapy. If the person is given cold water to wash, to
shower, to drink, his fever will remain and gain more annoyed
emotionally. There will be lots of millet-like dotes on the skin
(higher than the skin surface). The person has desire to drink
water, but does not feel thirsty, herb Wenhe San should be used;
if this herb does not work, try Wuling San. If the fever and
skin dots remain, and he is eager to cover himself,
but water wash is given, the cold water closes the skin to
prevent evaporation of the fever, and causes annoyed feeling. If
a correct sweat therapy has been used with sweat, but the person
feels stomach pain, add herb Shaoyao (into the Guizhi Tang).
Wenhe 78 gram.
Grind the herb into powder. Drink 1 gram with about 125 ml of
 Master Zhang Ji has another name:
Zhang Zhongjing. In Chinese, family name is the first,
given name is the second. There is no middle name
 Qi means something as air, as gas,
as vapour, as something you can feel its function but
hard to see its shape or mass. There are different Qi in
the body. The Qi that works to maintain the body normal
function is called Zhengqi. The Qi that causes a
disorder or a disease is called a Xieqi. The Xieqi can
be a bacteria, a virus, a fungers, or simply a climate
change, a cold temperature, a high temperature, a wind
weather, a raining, a humidity environment, etc. So, a
Xieqi in the Chinese Medicine is a very broad concept.
Whenever there is no proper English word to express the
TCM meaning, we will use the Chinese Pingyin but not a
Chinese character to mean it. In addition, the Xieqi is
translated into evil in some TCM book. We don’t think
this is a proper word. The Xieqi can be wind, cold, hot,
fire, wet, dryness, etc. They are normal and ordinary
nature factors. They do not cause disease normally,
unless they come into the body in the improper time,
either when the body defense system is weak, or when
they selves are too strong. They are not always “evil”.
Therefore, only after they come into the body and caused
disease, they are called the Xieqi. Xieqi is also called
Xie, for example, Wind Xie, Cold Xie, Wet Xie, Hot Xie,
Fire Xie, Dry Xie. Different Xieqi could cause different
clinic manifestations, which are very important to tell
the nature of the disease and to decide a proper
treatment principle. Identification of the Xieqi is a
very basic requirement to a TCM doctor.
 Weiqi moves outside of the blood
vessels, works as the first level of defense system for
the body. Rongqi transports inside of the blood vessels
and works as the inside defense system of the body.
 In clinic, to feel hot does not
mean a fever. Fever means a high body temperature, but a
person could feel hot but the body temperature is not
high. Such condition can be seen in person with
menopause syndrome and in many other conditions. In this
book, to feel hot does not mean an increase in body
temperature. If it is fever, it means a higher body
temperature. Similarly, that people feel chilly does not
mean that their body temperature is low, but rather,
their body temperature is usually high. If we say that a
person feels cold, his body (or hands or feet) also
feels cold by touch. Patient with chilly or shaking
wants to cover himself with more clothes or other
coverings. More covering can not reduce his chilly. At
this movement, his temperature is high or will pretty
soon much high. A dislike cold feeling also needs to be
separated with the Jue condition feeling. Many people
can feel cold in hands and feet, that suggests that they
are not at all in the Taiyang stage, but in others,
mostly in Shaoyin and Jueyin stage. We will introduce it
in later chapters. Readers should pay attention in this
book whenever we mean “feel chilly” or “feel cold”. It
bears different meaning. In most of times, TCM pay much
attention to the person’s feeling, not the exact body
Dislike wind and dislike cold are
also different. For dislike wind, one does not want to
stay in wind weather or in an environment with strong
air moving (such as in an air-conditioned car or room).
He will feel ok when he stays in a room without air
conditioning. For dislike cold, one does not want to
stay in a cold room. He cares more about the room
temperature not the air moving. He could like the warm
air moving, such as warm fan.
 This paragraph is very important.
It tells how to diagnose and recognize Taiyang stage of
the Shanghan disease. Furthermore, no matter what
disease when people come to you, if he feels chilly with
pain and tight on the neck from beginning, you should
know that his current disease is in an early stage, the
Taiyang stage. Pay attention to the condition here:
pulse first. The pulse should be floating. If one feels
headache, tight and pain on neck but the pulse is deeper
and thin and weak, it suggests that the disease is no
longer in the Taiyang stage, it might be in other deeper
and severe stage, such as in Shaoying stage now. Second,
it did not indicate the fever as the necessary condition
for the diagnosis of Taiyang stage.
Different disease has difference
clinic manifestations in the early Taiyang stage. The
floating pulse, tight and pain on neck and chilly is
common for the invasion of Wind and Cold. This book
mostly focuses on the introduction of the clinic
diagnosis and treatment for the invasion of Wind and
Cold (Wind and Cold come into body alone or in a
There are several other diseases that
need distinguish with the Shanghan disease. One of them
is the Ye disease, in which the invaded Xieqi is the Hot
in summer. In the
Ye disease, one feels fever, very thirsty and pulse is
weak, though he also feels chilly. For Ye disease, its
Taiyang stage is very short.
Another disease is the Wen disease,
in which the invaded Xieqi is Wet. In the Wen disease,
the person feels fever and extremely tired, pulse is big
but with flash cold, or in most case there is no chilly
So, follow me to remember the
principle to make the diagnosis of
floating pulse, tight and pain on the neck and chilly.
In future, whenever we mention the Taiyang stage, it
means that the person haa such clinic conditions. Chilly
is very important since the severity of chilly is
parallel to the severity of the Cold in the body
Readers should also know that, to
diagnosis the Taiyang stage of
Shanghan, only floating plus, or only a chilly
feeling, or only the pain and tight on the neck is not
enough to establish the diagnosis. Floating pulse can be
seen in other diseases, such as in a Wind-Wen disease.
Tight and pain on neck can be seen in Shaoyang stage (of
any disease), so does the chilly feeling. More than two
conditions should trigger us to consider the Taiyang
stage of Shanghan disease, under the condition that
there are no more evidences for other kind of diseases.
 The Taiyang stage is separated
into two types: Wind-invasion type and Cold-invasion
type. For the Wind-invasion, one furthermore feels
fever, sweat, dislike wind and pulse becomes slow
(floating-slow). For the Cold-invasion type, one
furthermore feels pain in the body (mostly on the back
of the body, back of the neck, leg), burping, nausea
(even vomiting), with floating-tight pulse, no matter he
has fever or not. Pay attention that in both types, no
strong thirsty (not as in the Ye disease or in Wen
disease), and not very tired and no abnormal tongue
(not as in Wen disease – see blow).
 In TCM, the pulse should be felt
by three levels: light touch, middle press touch, and
the deeper (harder touch). If the pulse is easy to be
felt with the light touch, it suggests the disease is in
the body surface, not severe yet. If the pulse is felt
with hard press to the bottom (to the bone), it means
the Yin pulse and suggests that the disease is in later
stage, the inner organ and meridian system.
Although commonly the pulse on the wrist is felt
by doctor, the Master asked not to forget to touch the
pulse on the neck and front of ankle for collecting more
pulse for the information to establish diagnosis.
 Here, a clinic manifestation as
mild hot, sweat, chilly, dislike wind, nausea, stiff
nose and floating pulse indicate the use of Guizhi Tang.
So, all of these clinic phenomenon are called Guizhi
Tang condition. Basically if a person has most or all of
such symptoms and clinic findings (pulse and tongue and
others), the herb Guizhi Tang is strongly suggested to
use. This book emphasizes such condition diagnosis. This
is different from the regular Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood or
Wei, Qi, Yin, Blood, of the five element diagnosis
system in the current TCM textbooks.
This is actually the most useful and most simple
way in the TCM practice, whereas you find more evidence
towards the use of a herbal formula, your successful
rate will be higher. In our experience, the herbal
formula introduced in the Shanghan Lun work as to open a
door by its key – very quick if the proper herbal
formula is used. So, you are now following me to learn
the herb parameter diagnosis system.
 Tang here means herbal formula
that need to be cooked with water. Then the collected
water supernatant is to drink for the treatment. English
word close to the “Tang” is decoction. We insist to use
the Chinese word “Tang” because it will be easier for a
communication between the English-speaking people with
the Chinese-speaking doctor when they mean the same
thing during conversation. In this book, once a word,
even if it is an original English word, bears special
meaning if its first letter is a big letter.
 The dose for the herb ingredients
in the <<Shanghan Lun>> has been a question for a long
time. One of the major reasons that later doctors stop
to use the herbal formula in this book is that they did
not use the correct dose. The [Shanghan Lun] book is
written 2000 years ago. The scale this book, say, one “liang”
is equal to 15.625 gram, whereas it in the later 1000
years in China is about 3 gram. Therefore,
doctors nowadays use 9 gram for the herb Guizhi in this
formula, whereas according to the book itself, it should
be more than 45 gram!
It has been well tested in our clinic and by
others that when we apply the dose according to each “liang”
is equal to 15.625 gram, the clinic healing effect
becomes much fantastic. This result also triggers us to
believe that the later doctors apply more and more kinds
of herb ingredients in their herb prescriptions, for the
fact that, for one reason, they wouldn’t be able to
reproduce the marvelous effects by using the herbal
formula in the book Shanghan Lun. In another words, the
good clinic healing effect by using the herbal formula
in this book, for one reason, is due to the higher dose
(a proper dose) used, so there is no need to use more
herbal ingredients in the formula (in this book, most
herbal formula contain only less than 6 ingredients).
The dose we translated here refers to the dose, one “liang”
is equal to 15.625 gram.
For the names of the herbs in the
herbal formula, we prefer to use the Chinese pingyin,
rather than English or their Arabic names, for the
consideration that, once it is listed as the English or
Arabic names, even we ourselves cannot understand what
do you mean when you ask question about the herbal
formula. Anyway, for readers speaking English, we have a
list of the herb names in both Chinese pingyin and
Arabic names for your reference.
Readers should know that, one herbal
formula may be used in various disease stages. They may
be used in the Taiyang stage, Taiyang-Shaoyang stages,
or Shaoyin stage or others. They may also be used in
other diseases rather than the Shanghan diseases. Here
you need to remember in which clinic condition the
herbal formula Guizhi Tang is to be used.
 Any herb should be chopped into
small pieces before cooking unless it is indicated clear
not to do so. Drink the water part of the cooked herbs
(you can call it decoction or herbal tea) after cooling
down for a while. This is principle for the herbal tea
preparation. It will not be reminded in the future for
other herbal formula unless it is reminded.
Most of the herbal tea does not need
the drink of rice soup as the Guizhi Tang here. However,
Guizhi Tang has other functions, rather than the sweat
therapy here. If it is used for other healing pursers,
it is not needed to drink the rice soup. Again, the rice
soup should not be replaced with chicken soup or other
kind of vegetable soup. Their healing property is not
the same. If there is no way to cook a rice soup, you
can break down bread into hot water. Keep it for 10 min
to drink and eat the bread-water soup instead. There is
ways to use some other herbs in the Guizhi Tang, to
replace the rice soup drink. We will introduce it in
later higher level of herbal therapy class.
Although we introduce the classical
herbal tea preparation, in current clinic and in our
clinic too, we used already-cooked herbal granule for
the treatment. It means that you can buy the Guizhi Tang
in a granule form that does not need any cooking process
any more. Simply take several tea spoons of the herbs
and mix it with water and then drink it. It is pretty
simple and easy to use. On our experience, it works as
well as the classical fresh cooked herbal tea. If you
are TCM practitioner, you can buy it from herb
distributor in your area.
Basically we do not explain the
function of each herbal ingredient in the herbal
formula. One of the reasons for doing this is that the
understanding of the herbal function in a herbal formula
is different among the TCM practitioner/doctor. Our
understanding of their pharmaceutical function is
different from those explained in TCM text book. We will
introduce the herbal function in later advanced learning
 Yes, wait for 40 to 50 min and do
not drink the rice soup right after drinking the herbal
tea, though some doctor and the current TCM text book
interprets to drink the rice soup right after the herbal
 Heavy sweat after drinking the
Guizhi Tang will exhaust the body Yang Qi, so tends to
make the disease lasted longer with more disorders. This
is because the fact that people need the Guizhi Tang is
those who are Wind person whose physical condition are
not strong enough to endure heavy sweat therapy.
Guizhi Tang is one of the most
important herbal formula in TCM. The clinic application
can cover from common cold to asthma, various allergic
reactions, bronchitis, chronic fatigue, chronic sweat,
hot flash, skin rash, urticaria, shoulder stiff, lower
back pain, night urine, eczema, dizziness, and many
more. It is also the most important stem herb formula
that many other herbal formula are developed from.
 In the Guizhi Tang condition, the
Rongqi is weak but the Weiqi is strong. That’s the
reason to cause the sweat.
 For the fact that menopause
syndrome shows hot flash and sweat, the Guizhi Tang can
 This paragraph is hard to
 Basically if the disease is in
the person’s pulse is floating, he does not feel
emotional. Now if he starts to feel annoyed (emotional),
it suggests the cure of the disease after soon-coming
self sweat. It reminds that the annoyed feeling does not
suggests the worse of the disease. Doctors should know
this and not to give over-treatment. If the disease
further develop, it comes into Yangming stage, in which,
one feels fever, heavy sweat with strong annoyed feeling
(irritable in emotion and body too), but the pulse turns
to big, no longer floating. The distinguish between
these two stages are very important by carefully feeling
of the pulse.
 This paragraph tells another
clinic situation that a disease may cure by itself, even
if the person feels annoyed and tight in mouth that
makes him hard to speak. The floating pulse in both
wrist and ankle position is important. Theoretically,
pulse should be touched in the wrist, the neck and the
ankle positions for diagnosis.
 In original version, it is the
face, not the eye lids.
 The answer from Master Zhang
 Normally, when we touch the
pulse, we use three fingers to touch the pulse on the
wrist (neck and front of the ankles). The finger close
to the patient’s hand is called Chun pulse, followed by
the Guan pulse and then the Chi pulse that is close to
the arm pitch of the patient.
 In clinic, the pulse feeling on
the Chun, Guan and Chi position are not so evenly the
same, therefore a healing is needed.
 Yang means the Xieqi comes from
surface to deeper of the body. Many kinds of common
cold, infectious diseases belong to this group. Yin
means the disease shows up from the deeper stage, such
as from the Taiyin, Shaoyin or Jueyin stage. Many
diseases, if they are due to exhaust of body energy,
wear of the body function, belong to this.
 It can be understand this way:
the reason for a disease occurs in the middle of night
is too much Yin invaded in the body
(night belongs to Yin), therefore, at noon, when
the Yang is the most during the day, the disease will be
balanced by the influence of Yang. For the same reason,
if a disease is get at noon, it will be better at night.
This is a very important concept in TCM.
 Here means the six
meridian/stage: Taiyang, Yangming, Shaoyang, Taiyin,
Shaoyin and Jueyin. Typical circle of the Shanghan
disease is one day in each stage. The stage is
correlated to the meridian. Once the disease in a given
stage, it means that it is also in the meridian of the
same name. For example, if a disease is in Taiyang
stage, it also means that it affects the Hand Taiyang
meridian and/or Feet Taiyang meridian. The neck is the
body surface where the Hand Taiyang and Feet Taiyang
meridian meet very close. So, no matter the Cold or Wind
invades in the body through the Hand Taiyang meridian or
through the Feet Taiyang meridian, they all could cause
tight and pain on the neck.
That the disease circled whole
stages/meridians does not mean that the body has
necessarily shown the clinic manifestation in each
 In TCM, when a disease is in a
stage, it also means that the disease is in the same
meridian. For example, when a disease is in Taiyang
stage, it also means the disease is in Taiyang meridian.
Because the Yangming stage follows the Taiyang stage,
the Master tells to stimulate the Yangming meridian to
stop the pass of the Cold/Wind from the Taiyang stage to
the Yangming stage.
 Wind person refers to one who is
easy to be invaded by Wind to cause health trouble. This
Wind person is usually thin in body ship, easy to have
sweat, running nose or cough or skin rash. They also
have less tolerance to the fluctuation in temperature or
emotional stimulation, e.g. they can not tolerate hot
weather neither cold weather, and sensitive to emotional
stimulations, etc. Such Wind person can mostly be seen
in young girls.
 There are different opinions how
to understand the function of muscle losing function of
 Floating and tight pulse, fever
without sweat suggests the use of Mahuang Tang (see
 Wine person means person who
drink lots of wine or liquor. Such person also tends to
feel hot with sweat. It seems that Guizhi Tang is also
evidenced to be used to his condition, but it should
 Vomiting after drinking of Guizhi
Tang (but the person do not vomit when drink other herbs
or medicine), suggests the presence of hot and toxic
inside of the body. Guizhi Tang is warm in nature. It
may disturb the inside hot and toxic to vomit. In this
case, stop to use the Guizhi tang.
 Sweating therapy means a herbal
therapy that creates sweat. Sweat is one of the ways
Chinese medicine use it to expel Xieqi out of body. Many
herb formula work as a sweating therapy. Guizhi Tang is
among the most commonly used.
 Continuous sweat after sweat
therapy suggests the person is weak inside and his body
cannot tolerate ordinary extent of sweat therapy. The
involvement of herb Fuzi here is to support the body
 Jia here means to add and to
 San here means herb powder.
 This paragraph reminds what may
happen with extensive sweat therapy.
 Yes, the dose is very little,
only 1 gram each time.
 If one has too much urine but not
in the Taiyang stage, the frequent urine may be due to
some other reasons. So the person in the Taiyang stage
should not drink too much water in the Taiyang stage.
 Commonly one does not feel very
thirsty in the Taiyang stage. If the person drinks too
much water, the blood circulation volume is expanded but
it cannot be distributed evenly to the body surface (the
body surface now is pressed/chocked by the invaded
wind), therefore the heart has to work hard to cause
palpitation. If the person has little urine, it suggests
that the disease has invaded in the urine bladder to
cause urgent feeling during urination.
Readers should know that the Hand Taiyang
meridian is associated
 After sweat, no strong fever and
no dislike cold, suggests that the disease is no longer
in the Taiyang stage; sweat but no dislike hot suggests
that the disease is not in Yangming stage. Athma with
sweat only suggests that the disease is in Taiyin (lung)
Remember: asthma followed
bowel-cleansing therapy when the disease is in Taiyang
stage needs Guizhi-plus-Houpo Xingren Tang; if in this
case, the person has asthma, sweat, diarrhea with fast
pulse, Gegen Huanglian Huangqin Tang is needed. Now,
asthma with sweat but no apparent fever needs Mahuang
Xingren Cancao Shigao Tang. This is pretty commonly used
herbs for asthma.
 Here clearly indicated that the
Mahuang Xingren Shigao Gancao Tang can be used for the
treatment of asthma: asthma, sweat, but not strong
fever, after sweat therapy or after bowel-cleansing
therapy. In practice, even if the person has no history
of sweat therapy or cleansing therapy but has asthma and
sweat, this herb formula can be tried. If one has asthma
but no sweat, herb Xiao Qinglong Tang is commonly used.
 In original version, it is
 In another version of the book,
it is diarrhea.
 If there is original water
accumulation in the stomach, the attach of the disease
will cause nausea, Xiao Qinglong Tang is indicated. If
the person has nausea, vomiting, dry mouth and hard in
urine, Wuling San is needed. Both herbal formula work to
solve the surface and the inside disease. The Shi Zao
Tang here is used after the surface disease has been
improved or is no longer the main problem but the inside
trouble is the major problem. The person suitable for
the Shi Zao Tang should be strong. Shi here means number
ten. Zao means Chinese date. So Shi Zao Tang means ten
Chinese date herb formula. Another formula is similar to
the Shi Zao Tang. It is Guizhi qui Shao jia Baishu
Fuling Tang that is used for fever, headache, nausea,
full in stomach, but no sweat.
Shi Zao Tang belongs to very strong
herbal formula. Most doctors are now hesitated to use it
but in many clinic condition, it works much better than
most other herbs. The most common clinic condition
indicating the use of the Shi Zao Tang is water
accumulation in the chest, e.g. hydrothorax, a condition
that is very difficult for conventional medicine.
 Most importance parameter to tell
the exist of disease in the surface of the body is the
feeling of chilly. If there is such chilly feeling, the
bowel-cleansing therapy should not be used. This is
 In original version, the pulse is
urgent pulse, not the floating pulse.
 In original version, the pulse
here is floating pulse.
 Jiexiong is a TCM concept,
referring to the fullness and pain the upper or whole
 The disease turns into Yangming
 The disease turns into Taiyin
stage. It needs Ganjie Tang or Tongmai Sini Tang to
 The disease turns deeper into the
 The disease turns into Yangming
or still in Taiyang stage.
 The disease turns deeper into
 The disease turns deeper into
 If the Taiyang stage is treated
by a wrong way – the bowel-cleansing therapy, there
could be various worse conditions happen, depending on
the person’s body health situation before the treatment.
The possible consequence can be told from the pulse.
 Hot-diarrhea: one has diarrhea,
urgent feeling to have bowel movement, hot in the anus
area, or spasm pain the stomach before and during the
bowel movement. He may have fever and the stool may have
bleeding in it.
This paragraph introduced another
clinic situation after mis-use of bowel-cleansing
therapy in the Taiyang stage.
 If in this situation, the pulse
is not weak, Gancao Xiexing Tang can be considered.
 In original version, there is no
 Improper use of bowel-cleansing
therapy in this Taiyang stage will deplete the body Yang
Qi, so person feels bloating in the chest with faster
pulse. Dislike-cold feeling suggests the depletion is
too much, so herb Fuzi should be furthermore added.
 Remember we said before that, if
the person has asthma and diarrhea, Gegen Huangqin
Huanglian Tang is considered?
 Person with long history of
asthma is called Asthma person.
 For Taiyang stage, asthma and
cough without sweat needs Mahuang Xingren Shigao Gancao
Tang; asthma with sweat: Guizi jia Houpo Xingren Tang;
cough without sweat: Xiao Qinglong Tang; there is cough
but no asthma in Shaoyang stage: Xiao Chaihu Tang; or
Xiao Chaihu Tang jia Ganjiang and Wuweizi; there is
asthma but no cough in Yangming stage: it needs Da
Chengqi Tang. Yangming stage, asthma with diarrhea:
Gegen Huangqing Huanglian Tang;
For the three Yin stages, only in the
Shaoyin stage, is there either cough or asthma. In this
case, asthma needs Sini Tang jia Ganjiang and Wuweizi;
cough needs Zhenwu Tang jia Ganjiang and Wuweizi. Couth
and asthma with diarrhea: Zhuling Tang.
 Reverse pushing feeling: one
feels as an air or gas pushing from stomach to chest or
to the throat.
 For Jiexiong syndrome, one feels
hardness, fullness and pain in the stomach; whereas in
the Pi syndrome, one feel fullness, slight pain in the
stomach. When press the Jiexiong area, it feels hard.
When press the Pi area, it feels soft, not very hard.
 Da here means big, or great. Xiao
means small in Chinese when we use it in the name of
herbal formula. This formula is called Da Xianxiong
Tang, there is another herbal formula called Xiao
 For the Small Xianxiong Tang
condition, one feels fullness and hard in the upper
stomach. He feels pain when touch, but no pain if no
touch. This condition is less severe than the Da
Xianxiong Tang. In clinic, they need to be
Note: for Pi syndrome, the person also feels
fullness and hard, but no pain even if at touch.
 This paragraph tells that the Big
Jiexiong condition can happen without mis-use of
bowel-cleansing therapy too. Note: the pulse turns deep
and tight now, no longer floating.
 In original version, it is Xiao
 Jiexiong condition has both hot
and cold conditions. The previous paragraph talks about
the hot Jiexiong, in which the person feels hot and
thirsty. Here talks about cold Jiexiong, in which one
does not feel thirsty or fever. The stomach situation is
pretty much the same: fullness. In clinic, the Xianxiong
Tang may be used regardless of it hot or cold nature. If
it does not work, Zhishi Lizhong Tang is used. It works
as such in most situations.
 San means number three; Wu:
material, mass, stuff; Bai: white color; and San:
powder. So the meaning of this herb formula is: three
white color herbal powder.
 The rice soup should not be
replaced with water.
 Here introduces a new kind of
Jiexiong syndrome: Water-condensing type of Jiexiong
syndrome, in which one feels slight sweat only on head,
as well as typical fullness and hardness in the upper
 Jing syndrome means a syndrome
with muscle spasm. For people in Taiyang stage, it is
called Severe (Strong) Jing syndrome if the person has
fever, not sweat, but dislike cold. It is called Mild
(soft) Jing syndrome if the person feels fever, sweat
but not dislike cold. If the one is in the Taiyang
disease and has fever, but his pulse is deep and thin,
it is called Yin Jing syndrome. Here the Master remind
to distinguish the Jiexiong syndrome with the various
Jing syndromes. With the Jing syndrome, the person’s
arms, legs, neck, all tend to stretch out (hard to
bend), whereas in the Jiexiong, mostly the neck is hard
 Note: it is Da Xianxiong Wan. Wan
here means pills. It is different from the Da Xianxiong
 The Jiexiong syndrome with
floating pulse suggests the disease remains partly in
the surface Taiyang stage. Bowel-cleansing therapy will
bring the disease deeper to cause more trouble. Only if
the pulse is floating on the Chun position but deep in
the Guan position, the bowel-cleansing therapy can be
 This paragraph should be
understood together with the previous one: if the one
with floating and big pulse, together with annoyed, he
may die, unless proper treatment is used. One with the
Jiexiong syndrome is in a very danger stage of life. The
bowel-cleansing therapy is the most effective way to
save the life, But tt is apparently very important when
to use this therapy.
 Here continue the distinguish
between the Jiexiong and Zangjie. A white, thick and
slippery tongue covering suggests there is no hot in the
chest, if one with Zangjie, it could still be solved
with warming therapy. The tongue covering is in harmony
with the Yin condition inside the body. If it happens in
Jiexiong syndrome, more bowel-cleansing therapy will
make the person much weaker.
 No hot/fever, the disease (Zangjie)
is not in Taiyang stage; no cold-hot repeat, it is not
in Shaoyang stage; and the one is calm, not annoyed or
irritable emotionally or physically, it is not in
Yangming stage either. Zangjie syndrome is hard to
treat, but does not mean no treatment.
 Suggests he feels chilly and so
the disease is still in the Taiyang stage.
 Wenhe is also named Wubeizi.